The history of Australian winemaking started with vine cuttings brought to the penal colony of New South Wales on the First Fleet in 1788. Since then the Australian Wine Industry has become the fourth largest exporter of wine around the world. Major grape varieties are Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, and Riesling, but most other grapes can also be found. Wine is produced in every state, with more than 60 designated wine regions totaling approximately 160,000 hectares. However, Australia’s major wine regions are mainly in the southern, cooler parts of the country. Australia has also long been the world leader in applying Screwcap technology to winemaking.